Environmental monitoring is the continuous observation of the status of the environment and the factors affecting it, involving observation and analyses of the environment as well as processing the monitoring data.
Environmental monitoring is necessary for forecasting changes in environmental factors and the status thereof. Monitoring data serves as a basis for planning, carrying through and improving (if necessary) environmental measures in Estonia, but also for fulfilling international duties of reporting and forwarding information. In Estonia, environmental monitoring is organised by the Estonian Environment Agency; the national environmental monitoring programme consists of 12 sub-programmes:
Monitoring the biodiversity and landscapes;
Meteorological and hydrological monitoring;
Monitoring of internal water bodies;
Monitoring of ambient air
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